The White-headed Woodpecker (Picoides albolarvatus) is a primary excavator that occurs in pine- (Pinus spp.) dominated habitats throughout its geographic distribution. Throughout the interior Pacific Northwest, the White-headed Woodpecker is historically associated with large-diameter ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) forests. Historically these pine forests were maintained by frequent fires that occurred every 5–15 years. Old trees (>150 years) in these historic forests were 40–91 cm dbh and ranged in density from 19 to 49 per hectare.