Evaluating rates of nestling provisioning by adult birds provides insight into foraging strategies and reproductive effort. In most biparental avian species, both males and females provision the young, although this task is not always shared equally between sexes. In woodpeckers (Picidae), biparental care is thought to be necessary to successfully raise offspring, resulting in social monogamy for most woodpecker species. Unlike other avian groups, such as passerines, where females generally invest more than males in raising offspring, male woodpeckers contribute significantly to raising you
The Western Bluebird (Sialia mexicana) is a secondary-cavity-nesting thrush that breeds in semi-open habitats throughout much of western North America. Historically, the Western Bluebird was more common in Washington west of the Cascade crest than to the east, but today it is more abundant in the eastern Cascades.
Woodpeckers are considered keystone species because of their broad effects on other species. In nesting and foraging, woodpeckers create cavities and excavations that other species use, they aid in controlling forest insects, and they may help in dispersing spores of fungi that are agents of decay. Despite the importance of woodpeckers to forested ecosystems, few studies have examined metrics of woodpecker demography such as reproductive success or nest survival or have investigated the associations of habitat characteristics with these or related metrics.